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SAS and SPSS Syntax for Data Transformations

If your research data are not normally distributed (you can test this with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test obtained under "Nonparametric Tests" in SPSS), many tests of significance may yield misleading results. The purpose of this page is not to provide a comprehensive overview of data transformation techniques, but instead to share the advice of Tabachnik and Fidell (1996) about how to transform your data with SPSS or SAS syntax. If you found this page through a search engine, you are probably aware that many other pages out there provide extensive descriptions of non-normality problems and data-transformation solutions.
Here are some ways you can transform your data:


Tabachnik, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics (3rd ed.). New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.

This information is provided courtesy of Manyitems Survey Portal (and of course Tabachnik and Fidell).  Other information you may want to look at on this site includes the survey questions page and the guide to online psychology experiments.